Monday, May 25, 2009

OCES/DGFS - 2009 (Electronics)

I tried to steal from my memory, the questions I encountered at the OCES/DGFS exam 2009.These are a part of the screening test,which is a objective written test of 2 hours duration.There were a total of 100 questions,completely on Electronics only.No questions on Engineering maths and aptitude questions.

1) Thin film transistors are made up of ___
2) XOR gate acts as the inverter if one of the inputs is tied to one.
3) Skin depth - Frequency of the signal determines determines the depth of the EM wave in the metal.
4) VHDL - Declaration of entity is compulsory.
5) Modulation is required for having practical Antenna diamensions.
6) Minterm is each square in the K-map.
7) matched pair of transistors are absolutely essential for differential pair amplifier.
8) DACs and ADCs - Successive approximation type and flash type.
9) Dependence of the KVA rating of the transformer on the frequency.
10) Number of address lines that are required to address a certain nth memory location.
11) 2's complement arithmetic - how many numbers can we represent etc.
12) Order of the given IIR filter
13) Ebers-Moll equation is used in BJTs
14) self-inductance,Mutual inductance,coil,Number of turns etc.
15) Transmission lines - Conditions for Distortionless and lossless transmission line.
16) VSWR - Problem on the VSWR given the characteristic impedance of the line and the load impedance.
17) Silicon can't be used in LEDs - why ??
18) Direct bandgap and indirect bandgap semiconductors.
19) ADC Resolution calculation - provided full scale voltage and the percentage of error in output tolerance.
20) Single multiplying DAC is used in ___
21) binary to decimal decoder uses which kind of logic.
22) In BCD, each decimal is represented by a nibble.
23) stacks in a microprocessor can be accessed via sequential access.
24) Function of program counter in a microprocessor is __
25) Instruction cycle of the microprocessor.
26) ECL is faster - why ??
27) In intrinsic semiconductor,the current flow is due to __
28) Functions of ALE,READY signal etc in 8085 Microprocessor.
29) The stack implementation in 8085 MP is __
30) Correlation,auto-correlation and cross-correlation.
31) Anti-aliasing filter is __
32) Hall effect.
33) Conduction band and valence band of semiconductor.
34) Diode circuits - Fullwave and halfwave rectifiers.
35) Opamp circuits - Summing amplifier.
36) The purpose of the coupling capacitor in the amplifier output.
37) 32 to 1 mux - implemented using 8 to 1 mux and 4 to 1 mux.
38) Unique properties and advantages with the various logic families like ECL,TTL etc.
39) A question on Potentiometer and a question on temperature sensors.
40) A typical design flow of an ASIC chip.
41) stages in the synthesis and various inputs to the synthesis.
42) Problem related to the percentage of modulation and the side bands power and carrier power etc.
43) A few problems on basic circuit theory - calculation of currents and voltages in a network.
44) A problem on D-flipflop in which the Q` (Q bar) is fed as the input D to the flop.

That's all folks ...

Wednesday, May 6, 2009

Dominant Phenomenons of Tamil Cinema

Tamil talkie has celebrated 75 years of its Existence last year and Sun TV screened a host of great classics in view of this,last year.I attempted to identify certain dominant phenomenons in our cinema during this 75 year old history.

This account by me might not be a comprehensive one keeping in view that the cinema of a period is largely driven by the socio-economic and political scenario of that period and the expectations of the audience.The following write-up is just an extrapolated interpretation of my understanding of tamil cinema and is sure to have quite a few shortcomings.

1930s to 1940s - Stage plays & Bhajans

Pre-independence era saw movies being used for the propaganda against the British imperialism [Haven't seen any of them...but hearsays and literature say so].Also,we get to see a lot of films in which Gods/dharma up against the Asuras/Adharma.In simpler terms,the films of this period are just minute extensions of the stage-plays and they were absolute dramas.Lengthy dialogues & loud deliverance of the lines and a huge number of songs are characteristics of the Pre-50s cinema.

Haridas - 3 Diwalis at Chennai Broadway

MKThyagaraja Bhagavathar,KBSundarambal and PUChinnappa are considered notable actors of the era.Tamil Cinema's first known comedian NSKrishnan and his wife TA Madhuram gave socially important messages with the comedy tracks.Thyagaraja Bhagavathar's (MKT) "Haridas" successfully completed three diwalis in the Chennai Broadway Cinema hall and MKT is widely regarded as the first superstar of Tamil Cinema.

1950s - Dravidian Propaganda

50s were a period of social renaissance and the Dravidian movement grew leaps and bounds in stature and political satires are a characteristic of 50s cinema. "Parasakthi","Manohara","Naadodi Mannan" are a few important films on this regard.These films are sensational hits and elevated Kalaignar Karunanidhi,the dialogue writer to a superstar status."Parasakthi" marked the entry of Sivaji Ganesan and its courtroom sequence is still remembered for its fiery and satirical dialogues.

Gunasekaran(Sivaji Ganesan) court scene - Parasakthi

Dialogues got their due importance only after Kalaignar happened to the tamil cinema.Annadurai and Kalaignar,both gifted writers and orators took tamil cinema and politics to great heights and used Cinema as a party propaganda vehicle with astounding success.

1960s - MGR,Sivaji & Gemini

60s saw cinema out from all its traditional shackles and directors like Sridhar delivered some of the great romantic flicks.50s and 60s films had some great film stars like Sivaji Ganesan[Played a variety of roles],MGR[Saviour of the down-trodden and poor - Robin Hood] and Gemini Ganesan[Kaadhal Mannan...I need not substantiate].By the end of 50s,Sivaji Ganesan has left DMK and presented himself a congressman.There after he started portraying several historical characters in films like like Veerapaandiya Kattabomman, Karnan,Thiruvilayadal,Saraswathi Sabatham etc.

DMK's trump card in 1967 Elections

Perhaps the most important political event of the decade should be Anti-hindi agitations of 1965.Anti-congress slogans were getting stronger in Tamilnadu and DMK capitalised the issue and came to power in 1967.One more important thing that contributed to DMK's stupendous success in the 1967 assembly elections is the sympathy wave,as MGR was shot in the throat by MR Radha.

Late 60s and 70s - New wave Cinema

Late 60s and 70s saw K Balachander breaking a lot of Cultural taboos in his cinema.It is widely considered that KB brought back the days of tamil drama into the tamil cinema.But nevertheless,we had a lot of great talents making their way into the tamil cinema in his films.Nagesh,Kamalhaasan and Rajinikanth to name a few.
Early 70s marked the fag end of the career of MGR as he became the Chief Minister of Tamilnadu in 1977.As MGR left DMK in 1972 and floated his party ADMK,his films of this period 1972-1977,cemented his saviour of the poor image and also questioned the atrocities committed by the ruling party,DMK.The trend of caching in on the image of an actor in films,that we see in most of Rajini & Kamal movies these days has been set by MGR.The songs of "Naalai Namadhe" and "Idhayakkani" literally spread ADMK's political aspirations,capitalising the halo of the party chief,MGRamachandran.

70s are a period of political turmoil and chaos in India as this period coincides with the Emergency and the restlessness and hatred of the people on the then Indira Gandhi's government can very well be observed in films like "Varumayin niram Sigappu".So,"the angry young man" character represented the anguish of the people on the government.Amitabh Bachhan portrayed this image in his films with an effortless ease,thanks to his tall and rugged persona.The ill-effects of emergency are not felt much in the south,but when Amitabh's movies were remade in the south,Rajinikanth with his rough looks and dark skin portayed those roles quite brilliantly and became an Image of this phenomenon.

Balu Mahendra - Master craftsman

In a pure cinematic sense of Technical excellence and absolute creativity,Late 70s are a golden era for tamil cinema.This period saw a gush of young blood like Mahendran, Bharathiraja,Bhagyaraj,TRajendar,Balumahendra and Rudhraiah who took cinema to the next level.Mahendran popularised the idea of films being inspired from short-stories and novels and his "Udhiripookkal","Johnny" and "Mullum Malarum" garnered wide critical reception and great commercial attention."16 Vayathinile" by Bharathiraja is considered the first film shot outside studios.Sensible film making with beautiful photography amused the audience as Balumahendra wrote,handled camera,edited and directed his films with sheer excellence.

80s - Rajinikanth & Kamalhaasan

Mid 80s had liberal cinema and films are no longer used for political propaganda and absolutely no constructive issues are dealt in films.Films begun to be looked at as full-time entertainers.The concept of masala films is originated by MGR through Enga veetu pillai,Engal thangam,Ulagam sutrum Vaalibhan etc.The baton was carefully relayed to the next generation actors Rajinikanth and Kamalhaasan.If Murattu kaalai and Sagala kala Vallavan haven't happened for Rajini and Kamal respectively,the fate of these actors and the tamil cinema as a whole would have been different.

Rajinikanth as Kaalaiyan in Murattu kaalai

Kamal Haasan chose to remain different and gave himself room to act in a variety of roles and established himself as the greatest actor of his generation and Rajinikanth knowingly or unknowingly multiplied his fan base through formula films.Any description of 70s and 80s cinema would be incomplete if Ilayaraja is left out.He is a genius...

90s & 2000s- Glamour & Masalas

90s are a liberal period and 90s saw India opening itself economically via globalisation.So,society is not the villain any more in films and Dons,Rowdism,terrorism are to be fought by the protagonists.Mani ratnam happened to Indian cinema through "Roja" and he quite boldly dealt with a lot of controversial subjects in Bombay,Uyire,Iruvar,Kannathil Muthamittal etc.
And,people are no longer satisfactorily entertained by south indian women.Gone are the days of Sridevi,Revathi & the like and Khushboo became a sensational success.Aishwarya Rai and Priyanka Chopra first acted in south India before pulling it off big in the Bollywood.This saw a host of North-Indian women imported for lip-moves and hip-moves.The role of a heroine has been cut-short terribly and her role is to dance with the hero for three duets in skimpy costumes.One rain song or swimming pool or beach sequence or bath tub is made compulsory.Simran,Jyothika are extremely successful after a series of exploitative roles in the beginning of their careers.

Paruthi Veeran by Ameer

Late 90s and Early 2000s again saw a new wave with a lot of youngsters like Bala,Ameer,Cheran and Mishkin involving themselves in quite a few creative and quality ventures among the so-called commercial trash.Tamil cinema technicians are world famous...ARRahman,Santosh Sivan,Thotta name a few made giant strides in their crafts.

So that was a miniaturised history of tamil cinema in my viewpoint and now comes the all important task of identifying our Dominant phenomenons in our Cinema through these years.


Hope I have convincingly went through the history of our Cinema.

Tuesday, May 5, 2009

My Favourite Emotional scene sequences

I am an ardent lover of Emotional films irrespective of the star-cast,language and the plot of the film.I truly believe that Emotional films are the REAL Cinema in a sense that they speak,communicate,emote and kindle its mood in you.
[I am afraid Pornography qualify for this league in view of the above description I gave,though :)]

Years after watching a particular scene sequence in a movie,that particular actor and the kind of feel he conveyed to us on-screen will stay with us and there lies their greatness.Action sequences,Thriller genre and Chase films will entertain you only in the cinema halls for 2 hrs and not there after.There are lovers of fast-paced films but I am not in favour of adrenaline rushes,atleast in cinema.

I sat down to list down five emotional scenes that would spring up to my mind,as soon as I thought about this topic.These are my genuine favourites that just splashed through my mind as soon as I thought about them.

So, Here goes my list ...


This film should be my all-time favourite and I have lost count of the number of times I enjoyed this film.

Mohan Bhargav,a scientist at NASA returns back to India to get Kaveriamma,his nanny back to the US.The whole of the film rest comfortably with Shah Rukh Khan's awesome performance,as he conveys through his eyes and accent,his love for his country.His emotional journey the Villages,tradition and culture of the country is beautifully picturised.

And then there is the song,"Yeh jo desh hai" which summarises the entire film in a 4 minute sequence.The Crux of the film is one's love for the motherland and this one is an Intense Emotional drama.Highly recommended...


Its based on a true story.The Russians have entered the space with their "Sputnik" and Homer Hickam,son of an ordinary coal miner in West-Virginia starts building his own rocket,with dreams as high as reaching the space.His teacher Miss Riley and his friends help him while his father and brother have different ideas.But there's no stopping him and he ends up at NASA as a space scientist.

"...Homer Hickam,Roy Lee Cook,Quentin Wilson and Sherman O'Dell for their ingenious display of amateur rocket building techniques..." and you will feel enthralled as though you are getting that honour.

"And this is to CoalWood...There are a few people who believed in us even before we did", As Homer Hickam proudly displays his Gold medal,a sense of accomplishment naturally acquires us.

[I am quoting the lines from memory...mishaps any in the words need your pardon]

It's a great feel-good film that will definitely set your spirits on fire.An Unsung movie but has infinite potentials...


This movie identified a great director for Bollywood, Aamir Khan.And, this movie is India's official entry to the Oscars last year.The film is on the uniqueness of the creativity of each child and the title of the film translates to "Stars on Earth", quite poetically and philosophically.

Ishaan Nandkishore Awasti is eight years old and dyslexic.He has a unique way of looking at things and that way is not fetching him marks in his exams.He is dreamy and highly imaginative and Aamir Khan,his teacher identifies his potentials and showcases his brilliance and artistry to the school and his parents.

When Ishaan cries with his mom for not going to boarding school, you cry with him and when he emerges successful in the art competition and in his exams, you feel joyous with him.The songs "Maa" and "Kholo Kholo" are honest emotional portrayals.Heard many wept,when the film was screened at our college auditorium.


This is again a true story based on the life of a self-made entrepreneur Chris Gardener.I wish to call Will Smith's performance in this movie,a life-time act and quite deservingly he got a Academy award nomination for this grand performance.

Chris Gardener struggles for a living as he goofs up his savings by investing them in a x-ray kinda apparatus.His wife leaves him and he goes through a very lean patch and stuggles with his son & without a job.Then, its rags-to-riches,though the riches part is not portrayed much in the film.

"Because tomorrow is going to be your first day...if you'd like to work here as a broker...would you like that Chris ??" and Will Smith just don't answer but emotes his feelings with his eyes and chin with no screen-consciousness.Top Notch performance from Will here.

"This part of my life..this little part is called Happyness" and we all know that he has got the job, yet this scene immerses all in tears as Will cries and walks clapping his hands into the crowd

5) ... What to say ... ??? .... ###

So,I was thinking a while for my fifth choice and didn't get one Immediately.There were a lot of sequences that went through my mind and I chose to list them all down.

a) Titanic - A Romantic whirl-wind..Need I say more ??
b) Black - It'll be an Unbelievable,out-of-the-box,Intense film for any outsider who believes Bollywood is all about bright colours,Glam-dolls and dance & Music.
c) Not without my daughter - Not a common film that everyone would have seen.But try it and you'll definitely feel pleased.It has one sequence "Mommy...I forgot Toby bunny" which will convey millions to you.
d) Schindler's List - When Oskar Schindler cries for not being able to save/rescue a few more jews...
e) Kamal Haasan's five minute sequence at the Railway station in the climax of "Moondram Pirai",that fetched him the National Award.
f) Children of Heaven - Watch the movie if you haven't yet and Ali & Sarah will convey the rest.

Of the above...Swades,Taare Zameen Par,The pursuit of happiness,Titanic,Black and Schindler's list are main-stream cinema.I hope these go fine with everybody ... :)